The Human Impacts Database

A collection of useful numbers for quantifying the impacts of the human presence on Earth.

Global cement production

Atmospheric & Biogeochemical CyclesAnthropomass

This quantity comes from a time series measurement and the most recent value (2021) is reported.


This is equivalent to...

≈ 4.4 × 109 tonnes / yr

HuID: 25488
Relevant Year(s): 2021
Summary: This value refers to global cement production. Cement is the binding material that when wet adheres sand and gravel (aggregates) together to make concrete. The literature notes that cement production can be used to estimate concrete production as it correlates to a 7-fold higher production of concrete (Monteiro, P., Miller, S. & Horvath, A. Towards sustainable concrete. Nature Mater 16, 698–699 (2017)). Thus, scaling 4.1 Gt of cement by a factor of 7 yields this estimate of 28.7 Gt / yr concrete produced in 2019.
Method: This quantity was determined by combining estimates of cement production from various countries. No assessment of uncertainty is given. The values reported here are published in the annual USGS Mineral Commodity Summaries in units of thousand metric tons and are converted to units of Mt in the processed dataset. Oftentimes, the value for the most recent year is estimated and is subject to change in the next release of the USGS Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS). The MCS is released each year since 1996 and gives values for the two prior years. These data are concatenated into the processed csv file by preferentially using the latest value for a given year.
Source: United States Geological Survey National Minerals Information Center, Commodity Statistics and Information. (2022)
Dataset: Global cement production from 1994-2021 (USGS_cement_production_1994-2021.csv)
global resolution
Original Data License: USGS Open Data Policy
Added By: nsarai